There are three aphorisms concerning optimization that everyone should know. They are perhaps beginning to suffer from overexposure, but in case you aren’t yet familiar with them, here they are:
More computing sins are committed in the name of efficiency (without necessarily achieving it) than for any other single reason—including blind stupidity.
—William A. Wulf [Wulf72]
We should forget about small efficiencies, say about 97% of the time: premature optimization is the root of all evil.
—Donald E. Knuth [Knuth74]
We follow two rules in the matter of optimization:
Rule 1. Don’t do it.
Rule 2 (for experts only). Don’t do it yet—that is, not until you have a perfectly clear and unoptimized solution.
—M. A. Jackson [Jackson75]
All of these aphorisms predate the Java programming language by two decades. They tell a deep truth about optimization: it is easy to do more harm than good, especially if you optimize prematurely. In the process, you may produce software that is neither fast nor correct and cannot easily be fixed.
Don’t sacrifice sound architectural principles for performance. Strive to write good programs rather than fast ones. If a good program is not fast enough, its architecture will allow it to be optimized. Good programs embody the principle of information hiding: where possible, they localize design decisions within individual modules, so individual decisions can be changed without affecting the remainder of the system (Item 13).
Strive to avoid design decisions that limit performance. The components of a design that are most difficult to change after the fact are those specifying interactions between modules and with the outside world. Chief among these design components are APIs, wire-level protocols, and persistent data formats. Not only are these design components difficult or impossible to change after the fact, but all of them can place significant limitations on the performance that a
system can ever achieve.
Consider the performance consequences of your API design decisions. Making a public type mutable may require a lot of needless defensive copying (Item 39). Similarly, using inheritance in a public class where composition would have been appropriate ties the class forever to its superclass, which can place artificial limits on the performance of the subclass (Item 16). As a final example, using an implementation type rather than an interface in an API ties you to a specific implementation, even though faster implementations may be written in the
future (Item 52).
It is a very bad idea to warp an API to achieve good performance. The performance issue that caused you to warp the API may go away in a future release of the platform or other underlying software, but the warped API and the support headaches that come with it will be with you for life. Once you’ve carefully designed your program and produced a clear, concise,
and well-structured implementation, then it may be time to consider optimization, assuming you’re not already satisfied with the performance of the program.
Recall that Jackson’s two rules of optimization were “Don’t do it,” and “(for experts only). Don’t do it yet.” He could have added one more: measure performance before and after each attempted optimization.
Profiling tools can help you decide where to focus your optimization efforts. Such tools give you runtime information, such as roughly how much time each method is consuming and how many times it is invoked. In addition to focusing your tuning efforts, this can alert you to the need for algorithmic changes.
To summarize, do not strive to write fast programs—strive to write good ones; speed will follow. Do think about performance issues while you’re designing systems and especially while you’re designing APIs, wire-level protocols, and persistent data formats. When you’ve finished building the system, measure its performance. If it’s fast enough, you’re done. If not, locate the source of the problems with the aid of a profiler, and go to work optimizing the relevant parts of the system. The first step is to examine your choice of algorithms: no amount of lowlevel optimization can make up for a poor choice of algorithm. Repeat this process as necessary, measuring the performance after every change, until you’re satisfied.
Reference: Effective Java 2nd Edition by Joshua Bloch